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    Clear and spotless skin is something everyone desires to have. Sometimes, people are genetically blessed with good skin, whereas others are not. Constant care is needed to make sure our skin is not affected by pollution, heat and other factors that lead to bad skin.

    Blackheads, pimples, blackheads and pigmentation are the most common skin problems. Sometimes, basic hygiene practices are enough to solve minor issues, but in cases of hyperpigmentation cases, including the most common melasma, skin peeling treatments are required.

    OBJECTIVE

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of the cosmelan® method in treating facial melasma among patients with a multi-ethnic profile and differentiated skin phototypes (according to the Fitzpatrick scale).

    Types of Hyperpigmentation and their Diagnosis

    Melasma

    Postinflammatory Hyperpigmentation

    Solar Lentigo Senile Lentigo

    Ephelides

    Hyperpigmentation effects are more likely to occur in women of ethnic backgrounds rather than Caucasian people. Let us take a look at some common types of skin pigmentations.

    • Melasma – Melasma is a type of hyperpigmentation characterised by the appearance of generally symmetrical pigmented stains on the face, particularly on the cheeks, dorsal surface of the nose, forehead and upper lip. This type of pigmentation causes greyish-brown patches to appear. In addition to the face, this can also affect other parts of the body. It is common in women of all ethnic groups and skin phototypes, but it is most frequent in Asian, African and Latin American individuals.

    • Ephelides–This condition comprises of light brown or red coloured flat freckles that appear more so on lighter skin tones.

    • Postinflammatory Hyperpigmentation – As the name suggests, this type of pigmentation is caused after an injury and is usually dark brown or pink.

    • Solar Lentigo– Referred to as ‘old age spot’ or ‘senile freckle’, this harmless pigmentation usually surfaces on people over the age of forty.

    METHODS

    A retrospective analysis was made of 33 cases of mixed
    melasma corresponding to Caucasian, Asian, African and Latin American ethnic groups with skin phototypes II-V, treated with the cosmelan® method between October 2013 and May 2016.

    STEP 1: AT THE CLINIC

    Application of the full 10 grams of cosmelan 1 as a thick layer on the entire face, with increased thickness over the hyperpigmentation zones. The product was allowed to act upon the skin for the recommended time according to the
    skin phototype involved*:
    • Phototypes I and II: 8 hours
    • Phototypes III and IV: 10 hours
    • Phototypes V and VI: 12 hours

    STEP 2: AT HOME

    Application of the cosmelan 2 maintenance cream, based on the following scheme: Simultaneous hydration and solar protection is essential, applying hydra-vital factor k and moisturising sun protection SPF 50+.

    There are various clinics for skin peeling treatments that can get rid of those ugly or undesirable spots on your face. Chemical peels are very effective and are made from light acids. They are divided into light, medium and deep peels.

    Light skin peels – Also known as superficial peels, this peel includes a chemical solution being applied by a brush on the affected areas. Once the skin starts to whiten, the solution is removed, and a neutralising lotion is applied. Recovery time for this is around 3-7 days.

    Medium skin peels – Performed at various clinics for skin peeling; this type of skin peel will have the doctor use gauze or a specific sponge to apply the solution to the face. Blue colour is sometimes added to the solution. Once the skin whitens, a cool compress is applied to the skin, and the solution is removed. Recovery time is 5-9 days.

    Deep skin peels – This type is used for extreme pigmentation cases and will be done on you while you are sedated. A cotton applicator is used to apply phenol to the skin, which will turn the skin white or grey. To control the exposure of the skin to the acid, this procedure is done in 15-minute intervals. Recovery time is up to a month. However, redness can last for several months in some cases.

    Skin peeling treatments mentioned above are used to treat the following conditions.

    • Wrinkles
    • Melasma
    • Uneven skin tones
    • Scars from injuries
    • Scars from acne
    • Skin damage due to direct sun exposure
    • Hyperpigmentation
    • Freckles
    • Wound marks
    • Tanning
    • Extreme sunburn
    • Burn marks

    People often tend to try and treat skin conditions at home, and there are some remedies that can work for minor cases. However, it is advised that skin ailments also be taken seriously and professionally treated. Some negative outcomes that can occur when uninstructed peels are practised at home are;

    • Burn marks
    • Further scarring
    • Dizziness
    • Infections
    • Reactions to other products used
    • Skin darkening
    • Undesired effects due to acid exposure
    • Redness
    • Heart damage
    • Liver damage
    • Kidney damage
    • Skin colour changes

    Skin peeling treatments are fairly commonplace and are available in most dermatologist clinics. It is important to diagnose your skin type and treat it in accordance with the doctor’s advice.

    Often it is difficult to get rid of spots and pigmentation as they are a result of things that are out of our hands but for the most part, maintaining healthy food habits, good hygiene practices and daily habits play a key role in maintaining a clean and clear skin. Using sunscreen, daily cleansing and avoiding polluted environments is advised.

    Before / After Treatment

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